Revija Centra za študij edukacijskih strategij

ISSN 2232-2647 (spletna izdaja); ISSN 1855-9719 (tiskana izdaja)
Pogostost izhajanja: 4 številke na leto
Vsebinsko področje: izobraževanje učiteljev, edukacijske vede
Založnik: Pedagoška fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani

Druga številka - Vol.1 | N°2 | Year 2011 (full pdf )

Contents

Editorial


Focus

Adapting and Designing Spaces: Children and their Schools
Andrea Kenkmann (pdf )

School Buildings for the 21st Century – Some Features of New School Buildings in Iceland
Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir and Torfi Hjartarson (pdf )

Off to School: A Comparative Study of Schools in the U. S.
Eftyhia Theodoropoulos (pdf )

Hypothetical Art and Art Education: Educational Role of the Method of Hypothetical Artwork Modelling
Jurij Selan (pdf )

The Field Trip as Part of Spatial (Architectural) Design Art Classes
Janja Batič (pdf )


Varia

Education as a Factor of Intercultural Communication
Grozdanka Gojkov (pdf )


Reviews

Valenčič Zuljan, M. and Vogrinc, J. (Eds.), European dimensions of teacher education – similarities and differences.
Barica Marentič Požarnik (pdf )

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Contents

Editorial
Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez and Domen Zupančič

Physical space plays an important role in our everyday life. It determines us, and at the same time we define it. How these exchanges happen in practice, and why are these transitions are so interesting and useful, are basic questions for researchers and designers. We live, work and learn in premises of the past; we can not be born, teach or work in a place that does not yet exist. Space and time are related and specifically determine us. How the best place for teaching and learning looks, and how it must be designed in order to make these activities more effective and enjoyable, are very interesting questions that require future research. This is why the main purpose of this special issue of CEPS Journal is discussion of the significance of physical space in the educational process. Content areas that can be linked to questions of space are highly significant and at the same time very heterogeneous, as they include concepts of school space from historical, sociological, philosophical, pedagogical, psychological and other viewpoints. We should not forget the influence of physical space on the didactic aspects of the educational process, stressing the dichotomy between virtual and real space in our everyday teaching and learning practice. Furthermore, school is a public physical space that serves the local community, and its formal characteristics express the community’s engagement in sustainable development as a positive legacy for future generations.

Five of the articles in the present interdisciplinary issue of CEPS Journal discuss different aspects of physical space and the educational process.


Focus

Adapting and Designing Spaces: Children and their Schools
Andrea Kenkmann

ABSTRACT
In schools, children experience their environment on three different levels: firstly, they constantly make spatial decisions by positioning themselves in relation to others and organising their immediate environment; secondly, they can potentially contribute to shaping the classroom spaces; and, thirdly, they are confronted with the designed school as a whole. It is argued here that our experiences of spaces are related to our memories, which provide us with a framework of references that allows us to ‘read’ and construct spaces.
Whereas on the lowest level of spatial involvement children are natural decision makers, the higher levels require access to, and an understanding of, shared practices and discourses. Although existing data on children’s perceptions of their schools suggest that children’s participation in the school design process is laudable for all sorts of reasons, such participation means overcoming considerable barriers for comparatively little gain in terms of the design quality. It is the level of the classroom where a more genuine shared organisation and (re)creation of space can take place on an everyday basis.

Keywords: Children, Participation, School design, Space

School Buildings for the 21st Century – Some Features of New School Buildings in Iceland
Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir and Torfi Hjartarson

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to identify features of change in the recent design of school buildings in Iceland, and how they might affect teaching practices. Environmental and architectonic features characterising school buildings designed and built at the beginning of the 21st century are examined in light of challenges involving architecture, educational ideology, school policy and digital technology. The sample for the study consists of 20 schools located in four municipalities. Four of the school buildings were developed and built in this century, while the other 16 were designed in the 20th century. The design of all of the buildings was explored and reviewed by a multidisciplinary team. Data was collected by observations and photography at each school site, as well as by reviewing technical documents. The relationship between school design and school practices was studied through a questionnaire survey among all teachers, in order to find out whether teachers working in new environments differ from teachers in more traditional classroom settings. The results indicate a clear shift in the design of educational buildings. Flexibility, flow, openness and teamwork seem to guide recent school design. Clusters of classrooms or open spaces, transparent or movable boundaries, as well as shared spaces allowing for manifold interactions in flexible groups seem to be replacing traditional classrooms along confining corridors. Teachers working in open classroom environments collaborate more often than their counterparts. Teaching practices are also characterised by more opportunities for pupils to choose between tasks and enjoy more variation regarding group division and workspace arrangements.

Keywords: Classroom environment, Collaborative learning, Individualised learning, Physical learning environment, School buildings, School design, Teacher collaboration, Teaching practices

Off to School: A Comparative Study of Schools in the U. S.
Eftyhia Theodoropoulos

ABSTRACT
This study compares the physical structure of two schools of differing socioeconomic backgrounds: one is a private day school servicing the children of some of the most affluent families in one of the biggest urban cities in the southwest; the other is a technical or vocational high school with the majority of the students living in ≫economically disadvantaged≪ homes. The research has been carried out with traditional qualitative methods, as well as with the aid of photography. The juxtaposition of photographs of the built environment of the two schools creates a concrete visual manifestation of the differences in the daily experience of the students who attend the schools. The visible differences lead to the emergence of research questions such as whether the experiences are different for the students in the two locations and, if so, in what way, as well as the question as to why both of the locations are termed ≫schools≪ when they are evidently so vastly different. The photographs give the viewer the impression that the educational experiences of the students attending the vocational school are detrimental to their development of autonomy and a sense of identity and self, while the private day school provides an environment much more conducive to the fostering and development of both autonomy and a sense of identity and self. The research is important because it indicates how the educational experience of the students might have implications for future mobility within the existing hierarchical social structure, thus making an important contribution to social pedagogy.

Keywords: Class differentiation in schooling, Critical pedagogy, Educational disparity, Educational visual study, School environment, School environment and learning, School-to-prison pipeline, Urban education, Zero tolerance policy

Hypothetical Art and Art Education: Educational Role of the Method of Hypothetical Artwork Modelling
Jurij Selan

ABSTRACT
A hypothetical artwork is an artwork that exists only as a fictional creation of an art theorist. The explicatory powers of such hypothetical artworks are mainly used by an art theorist to reflect on an art theoretical issue under consideration. Such an artwork has an intriguing and paradoxical nature. On the one hand, it is only fictitious, but, on the other hand, it tries to function as a real token, persuading the reader to trust it as if it were a real artwork. Even though this kind of argumentation can be deceiving, as it presents a statement of real art on the basis of fiction, it has some important explicatory abilities that can be put to good use in the art educational process. In this case, the construction of the hypothetical artwork is handled as the construction of a theoretical model. The author calls such theoretical construction the method of hypothetical artwork modelling, and its result the hypothetical artwork model. Such a hypothetical artwork model can be usefully employed when one wishes to encourage the student to become fictionally involved in the process of creation of an artwork, thus giving him or her more personal experience of problems that accompany the process of creating a real artwork. When such hypothetical experience is gained, the student can more efficiently learn about the considered art issue. In the paper, the author demonstrates how the explicatory powers of the method of hypothetical artwork modelling can be put into educational practice regarding an issue taken from colour theory (i.e., the primary colours fallacy).

Keywords: Art education, Art theory, Colour theory, Hypothetical art, Models, Primary colours

The Field Trip as Part of Spatial (Architectural) Design Art Classes
Janja Batič

ABSTRACT
Spatial (architectural) design is one of five fields introduced to pupils as part of art education. In planning architectural design tasks, one should take into consideration the particularities of the architectural design process and enable pupils to experience space and relationships within space through their own movement. Furthermore, pupils should have an opportunity to play the roles of (critical) users as well as co-creators or spatial planners. In this respect, the field trip plays a vital role, as it allows pupils to experience (architectural) space through their own movement, their senses and in a real environment. The architectural experience that the pupils gain differs from their everyday experience of moving through space, as the former is based on education and training, and thus helps pupils develop architecture appreciation.

Keywords: Architecture appreciation, Art education, Field trip, Spatial (architectural) design, Spatial experience


Varia

Education as a Factor of Intercultural Communication
Grozdanka Gojkov

ABSTRACT
The paper considers alternative constructivism as a possibility of theoretical starting point regarding education as a factor of intercultural communication. The introductory part of the paper deals with Kelly’s personal construct theory permeating the arguments in favour of the theoretical research thesis referring to the issue of the extent the pluralism of European culture space interferes with national culture through education. Furthermore, the paper considers the way pedagogy has been searching for more comprehensive self-observation, self-reflection and self-determination on its way to self-change in order to ensure freedom of personal action according to contemporary philosophical discussions. The importance of education as a factor of intercultural communication has been supported by the outcomes of an explorative empirical research, which is an element bonding all the reflections in the text. Finally, the key competences for intercultural communication have been stated in the paper.

Keywords: Education, Intercultural communication, Pedagogy


Reviews

Valenčič Zuljan, M. and Vogrinc, J. (Eds.), European dimensions of teacher education – similarities and differences.
Barica Marentič Požarnik

What can be expected when a group of eminent experts in teacher education (TE) is invited to answer a questionnaire and write a report on some facets of recent developments in teacher education (TE) in their respective countries? The result – the collection of reports from 13 European countries – is an interesting publication that can be read in two ways:

- to search for commonalities and differences in a certain area or
- to regard every report as a case study in its own right, to see how a blend of tradition, given circumstances and context generates particular solutions and also frictions, dilemmas and problems.

Both approaches help us to better understand the interplay of different variables in shaping TE and thus also one’s own situation. Solutions presented can be the source of ideas for policy makers and teacher educators. We can not always search for common solutions; the differences among countries can also be seen as enrichment.

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