Revija Centra za študij edukacijskih strategij

ISSN 2232-2647 (spletna izdaja); ISSN 1855-9719 (tiskana izdaja)
Pogostost izhajanja: 4 številke na leto
Vsebinsko področje: izobraževanje učiteljev, edukacijske vede
Založnik: Pedagoška fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani

Tretja številka - Vol.1 | N°3 | Year 2011 (full pdf )

Contents

Editorial


Focus

Regional Educational Performance Patterns in Europe
Péter Radó (pdf )

Immigrant Students’ Achievements in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia in Context
Iztok Šori, Nika Šušterič and Slavko Gaber (pdf )

The Big Improvement in PISA 2009 Reading Achievements in Serbia: Improvement of the Quality of Education or Something Else?
Dragica Pavlović Babić and Aleksandar Baucal (pdf )

Montenegro in the PISA Study
Saša Milić (pdf )

A Case Study of Albania’s Participation in PISA 2009
Alfons Harizaj (pdf )

PISA in Finland: An Education Miracle or an Obstacle to Change?
Pasi Sahlberg (pdf )


Varia

Teachers’ Emotional Expression in Interaction with Students of Different Ages
Simona Prosen, Helena Smrtnik Vitulić and Olga Poljšak Škraban (pdf )


Reviews

Kovacs-Cerovic, T., Vizek-Vidovic, V. and Powell, S., Parent Participation in the Life of Schools in South East Europe
Dragica Pavlović Babić (pdf )

Arthur, J. and Davies, I. (Eds.), The Routledge Education Studies Reader
Nika Šušterič (pdf )

Sahlberg, P., Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland?
Anja Franko (pdf )

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Contents

Editorial
Slavko Gaber and Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

As the result of our invitation, we have in front of us six articles discussing different aspects of achievements, mainly in PISA. Five of them focus on the results achieved in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, while one, due to a special invitation from the editors, discusses the Finnish march to becoming the best performing European nation in PISA. With this combination of nations from Central and Eastern Europe and Finland we embrace the two main ideas of the present CEPS Journal issue. On the one hand, we provide the ground for a thorough discussion of national and regional results in international educational attainment research. In so doing, we wanted to gather reflections that usually remain within the national sphere and present them on a regional level, thus offering our readers an insight into the state of the art in one of the important indicators of the quality of education in the region. On the other hand, we hope that in the idea of comparison readers and experts from the region will find stimulus to explore other topics and countries in the future (also in the CEPS Journal). We do not deny our aim, particularly by including Finland in the discussion, of stimulating the ambition of educators and policy makers in the region to strive for more – to achieve better results than the those of the past decade.


Focus

Regional Educational Performance Patterns in Europe
Péter Radó

ABSTRACT
The paper aims to contribute to the assessment of the contextual relevance of various educational policies through an analysis of three aspects of the performance profiles of European countries: participation, the quality of learning outcomes and the equity of learning outcomes. Comparative analysis of international student achievement assessment surveys and statistical data reveals three European performance patterns: the compensative education systems of North and Northwest Europe, the selective education systems of Central Europe and the attritional education systems of Southeast Europe. On the basis of the identified performance patterns, the paper provides a brief outline of major trends within the Central and Southeast European regions, shares reflections on the alignment of policies that fit the distinct context of the two regions and offers a conceptual framework for further comparative research.

Keywords: Central Europe, PISA, South Eastern Europe, Trends

Immigrant Students’ Achievements in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia in Context
Iztok Šori, Nika Šušterič and Slavko Gaber

ABSTRACT
Achievement gaps between immigrant and native students indicate failure to assure educational equity in the majority of countries assessed by the Programme for International Student Assessment in 2009 (PISA, 2009). The present article explains disparate achievement results in Europe, first testing the hypothesis of old and new democracies. In further contextualisation of the achievement results, the analysis seeks explanations beyond the common education system explanatory model. Specifically, the article considers results from Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia, highlighting the significance of language distance between native and immigrant students as well as migration regimes as important factors in creating or reducing the achievement gap between native and immigrant students. Evidence has been found that immigrant students score worse in countries with guest labour immigration regimes than in the countries with large scale forced immigration of people of the same ethnic (linguistic) origin.

Keywords: Achievement, Equity, Immigrant students, Migration patterns, PISA 2009

The Big Improvement in PISA 2009 Reading Achievements in Serbia: Improvement of the Quality of Education or Something Else?
Dragica Pavlović Babić and Aleksandar Baucal

ABSTRACT
The PISA 2009 results in Serbia show a big improvement in reading literacy compared to 2006 – the average score is 41 points higher, which is equal to the effect of a whole year of schooling in OECD countries and represents the second highest improvement ever recorded in a PISA study. In the present paper, we discuss potential reasons for such a big improvement based on analysis of the PISA 2009 reading achievements in different countries, with a special focus on countries from the same region (Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania and Albania). The analysis shows that the largest part of the improvement was realised at lower achieving levels, suggesting that the dominant method of teaching in schools is a traditional method oriented towards the acquisition and reproduction of academic knowledge. Findings of data analysis support the conclusion that the improvement is mainly the result of certain contextual factors, such as higher student motivation and a high level of official support for the PISA study in Serbia, rather than representing a real improvement in the quality of education.

Keywords: PISA, Quality of education, Reading literacy

Montenegro in the PISA Study
Saša Milić

ABSTRACT
Montenegro, a country that has been in transition for the last two decades, is trying intensively to restructure its socioeconomic system and reform the main social systems, such as the education system, health care, the judicial system, the social welfare system, etc. Numerous strategic documents have been adopted in the past decade emphasising the importance of making the country’s abundant natural resources functional, and of making the utilisation of human resources in the country significantly more effective. In order to achieve improvements in one of the key areas of Montenegrin development, human resources, a reform of the entire education system was launched in the first years of 21st century. The processes of joining the European Union, whose fundamental principles are the free movement of people, goods, services and capital, have also significantly increased the need to raise the quality of the education of Montenegro’s citizens and to improve the competitiveness of the Montenegrin workforce in the labour market. However, we believe that the results of PISA testing in 2006 and 2009 suggest that Montenegro is far from the proclaimed goals of reform in the field of education, and that for the coming years and decades considerable attention should be devoted to improvement of the education system. PISA tests should be understood in a much wider context, not only as a reflection of curricular reform and standards of verification and assessment of students’ knowledge, but rather as a set of guidelines that indicate the direction in which to develop and improve the education system, so that society can really ‘invest’ in the education of young people.
It is a very problematic fact that from the time of testing in 2009 until April 2011, nobody in Montenegro published any technical or scientific analysis of the success, or rather failure, of Montenegrin students in PISA testing. We believe that the use of this study should be significantly increased; not for comparing academic achievements with those of students from other countries, but primarily for improving educational policy and defining the strategic orientation of the development of the education system in Montenegro. Therefore, the absence of analysis implies an absence of certain professional activities focused on training teachers and improving the quality of students’ knowledge.

Keywords: Achievements, Assessment, Functional knowledge, Improvement, Quality of teaching and learning

A Case Study of Albania’s Participation in PISA 2009
Alfons Harizaj

ABSTRACT
The paper presents a view of the results and progress of Albania in the Programme for International Students’ Assessments 2009 (PISA 2009). The overall goal and objectives of PISA are to offer support and expertise in the field of the evaluation of educational development factors in Albania. One of the methods successfully used for monitoring the achieved progress during the given study period was the estimation and comparison of results with the results of previous PISA participations. A broader comparison of these statistics with those of other PISA participants in the Albanian region provides a real picture of the situation, showing the progress Albania has made and indicating how effective Albania’s educational policies are.

Keywords: Gender differences, Learning outcomes, Main domain in PISA, PISA assessments, Student performance, The socioeconomic environment

PISA in Finland: An Education Miracle or an Obstacle to Change?
Pasi Sahlberg

ABSTRACT
The present article discusses the role and impact of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Finland. PISA has created a new geography of education policies and reforms by shifting global interest away from Anglo-Saxon education systems to Asian countries, as well as to Finland and Canada in the West. The article describes how PISA has become evidence of the successful education reforms in Finland carried out since the 1970s, but at the same time has created a situation where the continuous renewal of the Finnish education system has become more difficult than before. The conclusion is that PISA is an important global benchmarking instrument, but that policy makers and the media need to make better use of the rich data that have been collected together with information about students’ academic performance.

Keywords: Education policy, Education reform, International student assessment, PISA


Varia

Teachers’ Emotional Expression in Interaction with Students of Different Ages
Simona Prosen, Helena Smrtnik Vitulić and Olga Poljšak Škraban

ABSTRACT
Emotions are an integral part of “classroom life” and are experienced in teacher-student interactions quite often (Hosotani & Imai-Matsumura, 2011). The present study focuses on teachers’ emotions in classrooms. Its purpose is to establish which emotions are expressed by teachers in their interactions with students, the triggering situations of the two most frequent emotions, and their level of intensity and suitability. Teachers’ emotions were observed by students of primary education during their practical experience work, in grades one to five. They used a scheme constructed for observing different aspects of emotions. The observations of 108 teachers in 93 primary schools from various Slovenian regions were gathered. The results show that primary school teachers express various pleasant and unpleasant emotions, with unpleasant emotions prevailing. The average frequency of teachers’ emotion expression decreased from grade one to five. Anger was the most frequently expressed emotion (N = 261), followed by joy (N = 151). Teachers’ anger and joy were triggered in different situations: anger predominantly when students lacked discipline and joy predominantly in situations of students’ academic achievement. The intensity of expressed anger and joy was moderate in all five grades, while the assessed suitability of these two emotions was high.

Keywords: Classroom, Emotion, Emotion expression, Observation, Primary school, Teacher’s emotions


Reviews

Kovacs-Cerovic, T., Vizek-Vidovic, V. and Powell, S., Parent Participation in the Life of Schools in South East Europe
Dragica Pavlović Babić

Parents and School – Partners or Casual Acquaintances?

Are parents active partners in the educational process? Do they participate in daily school life? Are they asked to make decisions that determine the quality of education and the quality of educational outcomes? As a parent or as a person involved in education in any of SEE countries, you could probably guess the answers to these questions, and it is likely that you have a strong sense of their importance. The monograph “Parent Participation in the Life of Schools in South East Europe,” recently published by the Centre for Educational Policy, reports systematic findings of a three-year research project conducted in ten SEE countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia. This research was conducted on regional and national levels. Although dealing with a relatively unexplored issue, the authors, Tünde Kovacs-Cerovic, Vlasta Vizek- Vidovic and Steve Powell, based their research conceptually on the following suppositions: parent participation in education contributes to its quality and equity; the role of the parent in real school life is underestimated; and the parent’s role in education is an underexplored area, at least with regard to SEE countries.

Arthur, J. and Davies, I. (Eds.), The Routledge Education Studies Reader
Nika Šušterič

“We wanted something that would stimulate this varied group of students to continue asking questions and developing provisional answers about some of the major issues that affect and characterise education.”
James Arthur and Ian Davies
The Routledge Education Studies Reader 2010, 1

For the last 15 years or so, the field of education has gained new strength, as is persuasively testified to by the renewed lively interest in education from both politicians and the broader public. The development and establishment of new study programmes, such as education studies, education policy studies, etc., and the increased publication of books and readers whose primary aim is to provide an introduction to these fields for students of such programmes, are further signs of this invigoration. Amongst the latter is The Routledge Education Studies Reader, edited by James Arthur and Ian Davies, accompanied by The Routledge Education Studies Textbook, edited by the same authors, both of whom are experts in the field of education and/or education studies.

Sahlberg, P., Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland?
Anja Franko

“What is worthy of note is that Finland has been able to upgrade human capital by transforming its education system from mediocre to one of the best international performers in a relatively short period of time.”
(Pasi Sahlberg: Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland?)

Many policy makers in different countries nowadays wonder how they can improve their education system in order to make it more efficient, especially when it comes to student achievements. A lot of useful reflections are offered by Pasi Sahlberg in his latest book Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? The title itself implies that this book is not just about boasting; on the contrary, it is obvious that the text includes more than one piece of advice for those who are willing to take it. The author leads us through the history of education in Finland, explaining who and what contributed to its development, how the changes were made and what is yet to be done in order to continue living ‘the Finnish dream’.

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