An Appraisal of the Internationalisation of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
Over the past decades, the development of the internationalisation of higher education has revised the conceptual framework of higher education, enhanced its scope, scale and importance, and transformed its world, as well as reshaping relationships between countries. More powerful universities play a central role and are suppliers of knowledge, whereas weaker institutions and systems with fewer resources and lower academic standards occupy a peripheral position and are consumers. The centre-periphery dichotomy in the internationalisation of higher education undoubtedly presents considerable challenges to the higher education institutions of the peripheries. For developing regions like Africa, higher education is an important instrument for socioeconomic development, and one of the strategies to improve and qualify higher education is internationalisation. In spite of various attempts to enhance the benefits of internationalisation, African higher education has continued to be peripheral, with relationships remaining asymmetrical, unethical and unequal. Along with some positive benefits, internationalisation has brought complicated implications and new challenges, such as the brain drain, cultural values, the commodification of higher education, the persistence of inequality between global north-south universities, and so on. The purpose of the present paper is to highlight the challenges and unintended consequences of the internationalisation of higher education, with a particular focus on Africa.
African Institute for Development Policy (AFIDEP). (2012). Population, Climate Change, and Sustainable Development in Africa. Retrieved January 23 2014 from http://populationaction.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/06/PAI-AFIDEP.pdf
Altbach, P. G. (2003). Centers and Peripheries in the Academic Profession: The Special Challenges of Developing Countries. In P. G. Altbach (Ed.), The Decline of the Guru: The Academic Profession in Developing and Middle-Income Countries (pp. 1-22). Palgrave Publishing
Altbach, P. G. (2004). The Past and Future of Asian Universities: Twenty-First Century Challenges. In P. G. Altbach & T. Umakoshi (Eds.), Asian Universities-Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges (pp. 13-32). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Amazan, R. C. (2014). When the Diaspora Returns: Analysis of Ethiopian Returnees and the Need for Highly Skilled Labour in Ethiopia. In B. Streitwieser (Ed.), Internationalisation of Higher
Education and Global Mobility (pp. 169-185). Symposium Books Ltd.
Barrett, A. M., Crossley, M., & Fon, T. P. (2014). North-South Research Partnerships in Higher Education: Perspectives from South and North. In B. Streitwieser (Ed.), Internationalisation of higher Education and Global Mobility. Symposium Books Ltd.
Bulfin, M. P. (2009). Perspectives on Higher Education in Africa: Field Notes on Trends, Themes, Challenges and Opportunities. A Journal of African Studies, 36(1), 1-9.
Damtew, T. (2014). The “Soft Power” Proof the Pudding-Not in the Branding. University World News, (308, 21 February 2014).
Damtew, T., & Altbach, P. G. (2004). African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century. Higher Education, 47, 21-50.
Damtew, T., & Greijn, H. (2010). Introduction: Globalization and African Higher Education. In T. Damtew & H. Greijn (Eds.), Higher Education and Globalization: Challenges, Threats and
Opportunities for Africa (pp. 1-7). The Netherlands: Maastrich University Center for International Cooperation in Academic Development.
de Ridder-Symoens, H. (1992). Mobility. In A History of the University in Europe, Vol. I. (pp. 280-304). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Deardorff, D. K. (2014). Why Engage in Mobility? Key Issues Within Global Mobility: The Big Picture. In B. Streitwieser (Ed.), Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility (pp.
35-42). Symposium Books Ltd.
Enders, J. (2007). The Academic Profession. In J. Forest & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), International Handbook of Higher Education (pp. 5-21). Springer.
Habtamu, W. (2003). ‘Ethiopia’. In T. Damtew & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook (pp. 316–325). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
de Wit, H. (2002). Internationalisation of Higher Education in the USA and Europe: A Historical, Comparative, and Conceptual Analysis. London: Greenwood Press.
de Wit, H., & Jooste, N. (2014). Can International Education be Truly Equal and Global? University World News, (308, 21 February).
Huang, F. (2007). Internationalisation of Higher Education in the Era of Globalization: What have been its complications in China and Japan. Higher Education Management and Policy, 19(1), 47-61.
Huang, F. (2013). The Internationalisation of the Academic Profession. In F. Huang, M. Finkelstein, & M. Rostan (Eds.), The Internationalisation of the Academy: Changes, Realities and
Prospects (pp. 1-21). Springer.
International Association of Universities (IAU). (2012). Affirming Academic Value in Internationalisation of Higher Education: A Call for Action.
International Association of Universities (IAU). (2003). Internationalisation of Higher Education Practices and Priorities: 2003 IAU Survey Report.
Jibril, M. (2003). ‘Nigeria’. In T. Damtew & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook (pp. 492–499). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Knight, J. (2013). The Changing Landscape of Higher Education Internationalization-for better or worse. Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, Journal of the Association of University Administrators, (17)2, 1-11.
Knight, J. (1999). A Time of Turbulence and Transformation for Internationalization. Research monograph. No. 14. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Bureau for International Education.
Knight, J. (2003). Updated internationalisation definition. International Higher Education, 33, 2-3.
Krstic, S. (2012). Internationalisation and Competitiveness of Universities through Different Types of Researchers’ Mobility-Facing the Future. In C. Adrian, P. Scott, L. Vlascean, & L. Wilson (Eds.), European Higher Education at Crossroads. Between the Bologna Process and National Reforms (pp. 511-524). Springer.
Meek, V. L. (2007). Internationalisation of Higher Education and the Australian Academic Profession. In M. Kogan & U. Teichler (Eds.), Key Challenges to the Academic Profession (pp. 65-80).
UNESCO Forum on Higher Education Research and Knowledge.
Mthembu, T. (2004). Creating a Niche in Internationalisation for (South)African Higher Education Institutions. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(3), 282-296.
Neave, G. (1997). The European Dimension in Higher Education: A Historical Analysis. A paper presented on the international conference “The Relationship between Higher Education and the Nation-State”, 7-9 April 1997, Enschede.
Ngome, C. (2003). ‘Kenya’. In T. Damtew & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook (pp. 359–371). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Ogachi, O. I. (2011). 21st Century ‘Academic Imperialism’, Internationalisation of Higher Education and Threats to Indigenization of Research and Innovation for Development in African Universities. A paper presented on the 13th CODESRIA General Assembly: 5-9 December 2011, Rabat, Morocco.
Sawyerr, A. (2004). African Universities and the Challenges of Research Capacity Development. Journal of Higher Education Area, 2(1), 211-240.
Scott, P. (1998). Massification, Internationalisation and Globalization. In P. Scott (Ed.), The Globalization of Higher Education. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.
Sichone, O. (2006). Globalization and Internationalisation of Higher Education in South Africa: The Challenge of Rising Xenophobia. JHEA/RESA, 4(3), 33-53.
Sy Habib, J. (2003). Partnership in Higher Education in Africa: Communications Implications Beyond the 2000s. Africa and Asian Studies, 2(4), 577-610.
Teichler, U. (2004). The Changing Debate on Internationalisation of Higher Education. Higher Education, 48(1), 5-26.
Teichler, U. (1999). Internationalisation as a Challenge for Higher Education in Europe. Tertiary Education and Management, 5, 5-23.
Teklu A. (2008). Education System in Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends and Developments. A paper presented on the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT) Annual Seminar on 13-14 October 2008.
University World News. (2014). International Collaboration in African Research – Who Wins? 10 February 2014.
University World News. (2014). International HE Associations Call for Global Equity. 23 January 2014.
University World News. (2014). Internationalisation - A student-Centred Approach is Key. 20 April 2014.
World Bank. (2000). Entering the 21st Century: World Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. (2002). Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education. Washington, DC.
World Population Review. African Population 2014. Retrieved February 10 2014 from http://worldpopulationreview.com/continents/africa-population/
Zeleza, P. T. (2012). Internationalisation in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges for the Knowledge Project in the Global South. Essay written for keynote address, for the conference A SARUA Leadership Dialogue on Building Capacity of Higher Education to Enhance Regional Development, Maputo, Mozambique, March 21-22, 2012.
In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.