In Search of Teaching Quality of EFL Student Teachers through Teaching Practicum: Lessons from a Teacher Education Program

  • Siti Nurul Azkiyah
  • Amirul Mukminin
Keywords: English teacher education program, Indonesia, student teachers, teaching practicum, teaching quality


This study was intended to investigate the teaching quality of student teachers when they conducted their teaching practicum. Teaching quality is conceptualised based on eight classroom factors (orientation, structuring, modelling, application, questioning, building classroom as a learning environment, assessment, and time management) of the dynamic  model, which have previously been found to affect student outcomes. The study used a mixed-methods design: a survey on students’ perceptions of the teaching quality of their teacher (student teachers) and classroom observation. The study was conducted in Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, involving English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student teachers in the English
Education Program,  Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Indonesia and 199 students of three different schools. The findings revealed that the student teachers did not yet practice the classroom factors of the dynamic model. Some recommendations include incorporating the classroom factors of the dynamic model in the curriculum or syllabus related to pedagogical skills to better prepare teachers in the future. It is also beneficial to study the possibility of sending student teachers to school earlier not only for the teaching practicum but also for other relevant purposes.


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson, L. M., Evertson, C. M., & Brophy, J. E. (1982). An experimental study of effective teaching in first grade reading groups. Phi Delta Kappa, 63(8), 527–530.

Anderson, L. W. (1991). Increasing teacher effectiveness. Paris: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.

Antoniou, P. (2009). Using the dynamic model of educational effectiveness to improve teaching
practice: building an evaluation model to test the impact of teacher professional development programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Cyprus, Cyprus.

Antoniou, P., Demetriou, D., & Kyriakides, L. (2006). Towards a dynamic model of educational
effectiveness: A meta-analysis of studies investigating the impact of school factors on student
achievement gains. Proceedings of the IX Conference of the Cyprus Pedagogical Association. Nicosia.

Astika, G. (2014). Reflective teaching as alternative assessment in teacher education: A case study of pre-service teachers. TEFLIN Journal, 25(1), 16–32.

Azkiyah, S.N. (2013). The effects of two intervention programs on teaching quality and student outcome: A comparison of education standards and education standards combined with a teacher improvement program in Indonesia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Groningen, Netherlands.

Bohn, C. M., Roehrig, A. D., & Pressley, M. (2004). The first days of school in the classrooms of two more effective and four less effective primary-grades teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 269–287.

Borich, G.D. (1992). Effective teaching methods (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Brophy, J., & Good, T. (1986). Teacher behaviour and student achievement. In M. Wittrock (Ed.),
Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 328–375). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Brophy, J. E. (1981). Teacher praise: A functional analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 5–32.

Bruinsma, M. F., & Canrinus, E. T. (2012). The factors influencing teaching (FIT)-choice scale in a
Dutch teacher education program. Asian-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 249–269.

Cattley, G. (2007). Emergence of professional identity for the pre-service teacher. International
Education Journal, 8(2), 337–347.

Chan, K. (2004). Preservice teachers’ epistemological beliefs and conceptions about teaching and learning: Cultural implications for research in teacher education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 29(1), 1–13. doi:10.14221/ajte.2004v29n1.1

Cotton, K. (1995). Effective student practices: A research synthesis. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

Creemers, B. P. M. (1994). The effective classroom. London, UK: Cassell.

Creemers, B. P. M., & Kyriakides, L. (2006). Critical analysis of the current approaches to modeling educational effectiveness: The importance of establishing a dynamic model. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 17(3), 347–366.

Creemers, B. P. M., & Kyriakides, L. (2008). The dynamics of educational effectiveness. A contribution to policy, practice and theory in contemporary schools. New York, NY & London, UK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Powerful teacher education: Lesson from exemplary programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). Doing what matters most: Investing in quality teaching. New York, NY: National Commission on Teaching & America’s Future.

Department of National Education (2003). Law for education No.20/2003. Jakarta: Department of National Education.

DeRee, J., Al-Samarrai, S., & Iskandar, S. (2012). Teacher certification in Indonesia: A doubling of pay or a way to improve learning? Washington, DC: World Bank.

Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change. London, UK: Routledge Falmer.

Garmon, M. A. (2004). Changing preservice teachers’ attitudes/beliefs about diversity: What are the critical factors? Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 201–213.

Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. New York, NY:
Cambridge University Press.

Hanushek, E. A. (2002). Teacher quality. In L. T. Izumi & W. M. Evers (Eds.), Teacher quality (pp. 1–12). Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.

Harris, A. (1998). Effective teaching: A review of the literature. School Leadership & Management, 18(2), 169–183.

Harris, A. (2002). School improvement: What’s in it for school? London, UK: Falmer Press.

Harris, A., & Muijs, D. (2005). Improving schools through teacher leadership. London, UK: Open
University Press.

Hills, J. R. (1991). Apathy concerning grading and testing. Phi Delta Kappa, 72(7), 540–545.

Jalal, F., Samani, M., Chang, M. C., Stevenson, R., Bagatz, A. B., & Negara, S. D. (2009). Teacher
certification in Indonesia: A strategy for teacher quality improvement. Jakarta: Department of National Education.

Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2000). Models of teaching (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Kaluge, L., Setiasih, & Tjahjono, H. (2004). The quality improvement of primary children learning
through a school-based programme in Indonesia. East Java: Universitas Surabaya.

Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2011). Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data. The Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 587–613.

Ko, J., Sammons, P., & Bakkum, L. (2013). Effective teaching: A review of research and evidence.
Berkshire, UK: CFBT Education Services.

Kyriacou, C., Hulthgren, A., & Stephens, P. (1999). Student teachers’ motivation to become a secondary school teacher in England and Norway. Teacher Development, 3(3), 373–381.

Lee, I. (2007). Preparing pre-service English teachers for reflective practice. ELT Journal, 61(4), 321–329.

Low, E. L., Lim, S. K., Ch’ng, A., & Goh, K. C. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ reasons for choosing
teaching as a career in Singapore. Asian Pacific Journal of Education, 31(2), 195–210.

Lortie, D. C. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Maulana, R., Opdenakker, M., Den Brok, P., & Bosker, R. (2011). Teacher-student interpersonal
relationships in Indonesia: Profiles and importance to student motivation. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 31(1), 33–49.

Money, S. M. (1992). What is teaching effectiveness? A survey of student and teacher perceptions of teacher effectiveness. Chicago, IL: Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology.

Muijs, D. (2006). Measuring teacher effectiveness: Some methodological reflections. Educational Research and Evaluation, 12(1), 53–74.

Muijs, D., & Reynolds, D. (2000). School effectiveness and teacher effectiveness in mathematics:
Some preliminary findings from the evaluation of the mathematics enhancement programme. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11(3), 273–303.

Muijs, D., & Reynolds, D. (2010). Effective teaching: Research and practice. London, UK: Paul Chapman.

Muijs, D., & Reynolds, D. (2011). Effective teaching: Evidence and practice. London, UK: SAGE.

Mukminin, A., Ali, R. M., & Ashari, M. J. (2015). Voices from within: Student teachers’ experiences in English academic writing socialization at one Indonesian teacher training program. The Qualitative Report, 20(9), 1394–1407. Retrieved from

Mukminin, A., Kamil, D., Muazza, M., & Haryanto, E. (2017). Why teacher education? Documenting undocumented female student teachers’ motives in Indonesia: A case study. The Qualitative Report, 22(1), 309–326.

Mukminin, A., Rohayati, T., Putra, H. A., Habibi, A., & Aina, M. (2017). The long walk to quality
teacher education in Indonesia: Student teachers’ motives to become a teacher and policy implications. Elementary Education Online, 16(1), 35–59.

Needels, M., & Gage, N. L. (1991). Essence and accident in process-product research on teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Effective teaching: Current research (pp. 3–31). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). Teacher matter: Attracting,
developing and retaining effective teachers. Paris: OECD.

Pittelman, S., Heimlich, J., Berglund, R., & French, M. (1991). Semantic feature analysis: Classroom applications. Newark, NJ: International Reading Association.

Richardson, P. W., & Watt, H. M. G. (2006). Who choose teaching and why? Profiling characteristics and motivations across three Australian universities. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1), 27–56.

Shinde, M. B., & Karekkati, T. K. (2012). Pre-service teachers’ beliefs about teaching English to primary school children. International Journal of Instruction, 5(1), 69–86.

Sulistiyo, U., Mukminin, A., Abdurrahman, K., & Haryanto, E. (2017). Learning to teach: A case study of student teachers’ practicum and policy recommendations. The Qualitative Report, 22(3), 712–731. Retrieved from

Utomo, E. (2005). Challenges of curriculum reform in the context of decentralization: The response of teachers to competency based curriculum (CBC) and its implementation in schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Pittsburgh, United States of America.

Zeichner, K. (2010). Rethinking the connection between campus courses and field experiences in college- and university-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 61–89.

Zheng, H. (2009). A review of research on EFL pre-service teachers’ beliefs and practices. Journal of Cambridge Studies, 4(1), 73–81.

Van der Werf, M. P. C., Creemers, B. P. M., De Jong, R., & Klaver, L. (2000). Evaluation of school
improvement through an educational effectiveness model: The case of Indonesia’s PEQIP project. Comparative Education Review, 44(3), 329–356.
How to Cite
Azkiyah, S. N., & Mukminin, A. (2017). In Search of Teaching Quality of EFL Student Teachers through Teaching Practicum: Lessons from a Teacher Education Program. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 7(4), 105-124.