Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal <p>The Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal devoted to publishing research papers in different fields of education, including scientific.</p> University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education, Slovenia en-US Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 1855-9719 <p>In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.</p> Problem Solving and Problem Posing: From Conceptualisation to Implementation in the Mathematics Classroom Tatjana Hodnik Vida Manfreda Kolar Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 7 12 10.26529/cepsj.1418 Multiple Approaches to Problem Posing: Theoretical Considerations Regarding its Definition, Conceptualisation, and Implementation <p>The importance of mathematical problem posing has been acknowledged by many researchers. In this theoretical paper, we want to capture different meanings and aspects of problem posing by approaching it from three different levels: (1) by comparing definitions, (2) by relating it to other constructs, and (3) by referring to research and teaching settings. The first level is an attempt to organise existing definitions of problem posing. The result of this analysis are five categories, which shows that there is no consensus regarding the conceptualisations of problem posing. In the second level, we examine how problem posing is conceived by the research community compared to other mathematical constructs, such as problem solving, mathematical creativity, or modelling. Finally, in the third level, we summarise possible ways of implementing problem posing in research and teaching settings as they are depicted in the relevant literature. Given this broad variance regarding the conceptualisations of problem posing, we attempt to provide some arguments as to whether there is a need for consensus on a commonly accepted concept of problem posing.</p> Ioannis Papadopoulos Nafsika Patsiala Lukas Baumanns Benjamin Rott Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 13 34 10.26529/cepsj.878 Reading Mathematical Texts as a Problem-Solving Activity: The Case of the Principle of Mathematical Induction <p>Reading mathematical texts is closely related to the effort of the reader to understand its content; therefore, it is reasonable to consider such reading as a problem-solving activity. In this paper, the Principle of Mathematical Induction was given to secondary education students, and their effort to comprehend the text was examined in order to identify whether significant elements of problem solving are involved. The findings give evidence that while negotiating the content of the text, the students went through Polya’s four phases of problem solving. Moreover, this approach of reading the Principle of Mathematical Induction in the sense of a problem that must be solved seems a promising idea for the conceptual understanding of the notion of mathematical induction.</p> Ioannis Papadopoulos Paraskevi Kyriakopoulou Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 35 53 10.26529/cepsj.881 Factors Affecting Success in Solving a Stand-Alone Geometrical Problem by Students aged 14 to 15 <p>This paper investigates and considers factors that affect success in solving a stand-alone geometrical problem by 182 students of the 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> grades of elementary school. The starting point for consideration is a geometrical task from the National Secondary School Leaving Exam in Croatia (State Matura), utilising elementary-level geometry concepts. The task was presented as a textual problem with an appropriate drawing and a task within a given context. After data processing, the key factors affecting the process of problem solving were singled out: visualisation skills, detection and connection of concepts, symbolic notations, and problem-solving culture. The obtained results are the basis of suggestions for changes in the geometry teaching-learning process.</p> Branka Antunović-Piton Nives Baranović Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 55 79 10.26529/cepsj.889 Management of Problem Solving in a Classroom Context <p>We report on the results of a professional development programme involving four Hungarian teachers of mathematics. The programme aims to support teachers in integrating problem solving into their classes. The basic principle of the programme, as well as its novelty (at least compared to Hungarian practice), is that the development takes place in the teacher’s classroom, adjusted to the teacher’s curriculum and in close cooperation between the teacher and researchers. The teachers included in the programme were supported by the researchers with lesson plans, practical teaching advice and lesson analyses. The progression of the teachers was assessed after the one-year programme based on a self-designed trial lesson, focusing particularly on how the teachers plan and implement problem-solving activities in lessons, as well as on their behaviour in the classroom during problem-solving activities. The findings of this qualitative research are based on video recordings of the lessons and on the teachers’ own reflections. We claim that the worked-out lesson plans and the self-reflection habits of the teachers contribute to the successful management of problem-solving activities.</p> Eszter Kónya Zoltán Kovács Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 81 101 10.26529/cepsj.895 MERIA – Conflict Lines: Experience with Two Innovative Teaching Materials <p>The design of inquiry-based tasks and problem situations for daily mathematics teaching is still a challenge. In this article, we study the implementation of two tasks as part of didactic scenarios for inquiry-based mathematics teaching, examining teachers’ classroom orchestration supported by these scenarios. The context of the study is the Erasmus+ project MERIA – Mathematics Education: Relevant, Interesting and Applicable, which aims to encourage learning activities that are meaningful and inspiring for students by promoting the reinvention of target mathematical concepts. As innovative teaching materials for mathematics education in secondary schools, MERIA scenarios cover specific curriculum topics and were created based on two well-founded theories in mathematics education: realistic mathematics education and the theory of didactical situations. With the common name <em>Conflict Lines </em>(Conflict Lines – Introduction and Conflict Set – Parabola), the scenarios aim to support students’ inquiry about sets in the plane that are <em>equidistant</em> from given geometrical figures: a perpendicular bisector as a line equidistant from two points, and a parabola as a curve equidistant from a point and a line. We examine the results from field trials in the classroom regarding students’ formulation and validation of the new knowledge, and we describe the rich situations teachers may face that encourage them to proceed by building on students’ work. This is a crucial and creative moment for the teacher, creating opportunities and moving between students’ discoveries and the intended target knowledge.</p> Željka Milin Šipuš Matija Bašić Michiel Doorman Eva Špalj Sanja Antoliš Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 103 124 10.26529/cepsj.987 The Dynamics of Foreign Language Values in Sweden: A Social History <p>This paper gives an account of the history of foreign language values in Sweden from the seventeenth century to the present. The paper is informed by sociocultural standpoints on language and language learning according to which language is a dynamic tool that is appropriated by individuals to achieve particular purposes, and that dialogically creates and renews our social world(s).&nbsp; Since the sixteenth century, three languages (German, French and English) have been taught in Sweden as foreign languages during particular eras. In this paper, we explore how language value can be understood as a system that evolves over time as a result of triggers such as power, trade and personal benefits. The impact of these variables on Swedish society’s efforts to invest in learning a particular language during specific eras is critically examined from the perspectives of nested systems.</p> Parvin Gheitasi Eva Lindgren Janet Enever Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 125 146 10.26529/cepsj.758 That Old Devil Called ‘Statistics’: Statistics Anxiety in University Students and Related Factors <p>The present study investigated relationships between statistics anxiety (SA), trait anxiety, attitudes towards mathematics and statistics, and academic achievement among university students who had at least one study course related to statistics in their study programme. Five hundred and twelve students from the University of Ljubljana completed the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and answered questions about their perception<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">s</span> of mathematics and statistics. The results showed below-average mean scores on the STARS dimensions, except for the Test and Class Anxiety with the average score around the midpoint of the scale. Female students reported higher levels of SA than male students did. The highest levels of SA were reported by students who perceived mathematics and statistics as a threat. The subscales of the STARS correlated positively with students’ trait anxiety. Students who reported less enjoyment in mathematics in high school perceived statistics to be a less worthy subject and had a lower computation self-concept. Students who had better mathematics performance in high school and higher average study grades also reported a higher computation self-concept. In the present study, we translated the STARS questionnaire into Slovenian and confirmed the six-factor structure of the questionnaire. The results provide a basis for further research on statistics anxiety and further validation of the STARS questionnaire. The results can also aid statistics teachers in better understanding students’ worries, fears, and attitudes towards statistics and in learning about the factors that affect students’ statistics anxiety and their work in the course.</p> Melita Puklek Levpušček Maja Cukon Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 147 168 10.26529/cepsj.826 The Mediating Role of Parents and School in Peer Aggression Problems <p>Starting from the ecological framework, the present study aimed to examine the mediating effects of parental supervision and school climate on the relationship between exosystem variables (time spent with media and perceived neighbourhood dangerousness) and peer aggression problems (peer aggression and victimisation). The participants were 880 primary school students. The data were analysed with multiple regression. The results show that both mediators (parental supervision and school climate) have statistically significant partial mediating effects on peer aggression and victimisation. If students experienced more parental supervision, there was a decrease in the relationship between a) time spent with media and peer aggression, and b) perceived neighbourhood dangerousness and peer aggression and victimisation. Identical findings were obtained for positive school climate. Thus, positive school climate and parental supervision served as protective factors against the negative influence of dangerous neighbourhoods and excessive use of media on peer aggression problems.</p> Tena Velki Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 169 188 10.26529/cepsj.921 Experiences of Slovenian In-Service Primary School Teachers and Students of Grades 4 and 5 with Outdoor Lessons in the Subject Science and Technology <p>The present paper presents the results of a survey on outdoor lessons conducted by teachers of the subject Science and Technology in the 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> grades of primary school in the school’s vicinity. It examines differences between teachers themselves and between teachers and students, as well as the ideas and limitations of outdoor lessons. The study included 70 in-service primary school teachers of the 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> grades and 154 students of the 4<sup>th</sup> grade and 151 students of the 5<sup>th</sup> grade of primary school. The data were obtained with two questionnaires: an e-questionnaire for teachers and a paper-pencil questionnaire for students. The results show that 13 per cent of teaching time in the subject Science and Technology consists of outdoor lessons. Statistically significant differences were found between teachers with different amounts of teaching experience, while differences in the quantity of outdoor lessons did not arise among teachers of different school strata and among teachers who had an early experience with outdoor lessons in the vicinity of school themselves as students compared to teachers who had no such experience. The teachers had several specific and general ideas for outdoor activities for the thematic sets of the Science and Technology curriculum and reported similar difficulties in planning outdoor lessons to those reported in other countries. The results of the research show that the teachers report the use of outdoor lessons in the vicinity of school more often than recalled by the students. The students reported that such activities typically take place about twice a year, mostly in playgrounds, meadows, and forests. The results provide an insight into the state of the teachers’ initiatives for outdoor lessons in the subject Science and Technology and indirectly offer opportunities to reflect and act on outdoor lessons from different perspectives.</p> Maruša Novljan Jerneja Pavlin Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 189 215 10.26529/cepsj.919 Examining the Mediating Role of Altruism in the Relationship between Empathic Tendencies, the Nature Relatedness, and Environmental Consciousness <p>A study was conducted using a correlational screening model to determine the mediating effect of altruism in the relationship between empathic tendencies, the nature relatedness and environmental consciousness. The participants of the study, selected via random cluster sampling design, are composed of 305 pre-school teachers working in pre-schools and kindergartens in a city located in Turkey’s Aegean region. The ‘Empathic Tendency Scale’, ‘Altruism Scale’, ‘Nature Relatedness Scale’, and ‘Environmental Consciousness Scale’ were used as data collection tools.&nbsp;The analyses of the sub-purposes were carried out using the PROCESS macro (Model 4) developed by Andrew Hayes using the SPSS infrastructure. When the study results were examined, the indirect effects of the empathic tendency on nature relatedness and environmental consciousness were found to be significant. Thus, altruism was the mediator for the relationship between the empathic tendency and nature relatedness (β=.13, 95% BCA CI [.08; .19]) and for the relationship between emphatic tendency and environmental consciousness (β=.36, %95 BCA CI [.18; .57]).</p> Nudar Yurtsever Duriye Esra Angın Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 217 239 10.26529/cepsj.1032 John Hattie, Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey, Visible Learning for Mathematics: Grades K-12: What Works Best to Optimize Student Learning, Corwin Mathematics: 2017; 269 pp.: ISBN: 9781506362946 Monika Zupančič Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 241 246 10.26529/cepsj.1419 Pavel Zgaga (ed.), Inclusion in Education: Reconsidering Limits, Identifying Possibilities, Peter Lang: 2019; 271 pp.: ISBN 978-3-631-77859-3 Melina Tinnacher Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 12 1 247 249 10.26529/cepsj.1420