Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal <p>The C·E·P·S Journal is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal devoted to publishing research papers in different fields of education, including scientific.</p> University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education, Slovenia en-US Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 1855-9719 <p>In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.</p> Art, for Children’s Sake! At the Crossroads of Making, Understanding and Teaching Visual Art Jurij Selan Robert Potočnik Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 7 11 10.26529/cepsj.1050 Constructivism in Visual Arts Classes <p>One of the basic features of the modern educational system is manifested in the reversal of the transmissive (traditional) approach to learning and teaching to the transformational (modern) approach. The transmissive approach to learning and teaching is that one in which students adopt ready-made constructs of organised knowledge through passive acceptance of the facts mediated by the teacher. In contrast, in the transformational approach, the teacher encourages the student’s active participation through exploratory, problem-based learning, during which students gain much more of their potential than in traditionally conceived classes. Changing the obsolete pedagogical paradigm began with the development of contemporary (cognitivist and constructivist) pedagogical theories. According to the constructivist theories of learning, individuals develop their knowledge of the world based on their own experiences and reflection of these experiences. Learning is the result of cognitive constructs based on individual experience and (pre)knowledge gained during the social interaction determined by the culture in which individuals live. Interpretative activity in the constructing of understanding is particularly emphasised in visual arts education. In this paper, the main determinants of constructivism and constructivist theories in the context of the educational process are elaborated. The main principles of constructivist-based teaching of visual arts are interpreted related to other contemporary teaching strategies and approaches such as active learning, learning through problem-solving, and interactive approach to learning and teaching of visual arts. The teacher’s role is also discussed, whose approach, awareness of the student’s pre-knowledge, and capacity for meaningful communication with students, greatly influence the success of the students’ adoption, understanding and interpretation of visual arts contents. The present paper aims to highlight certain elements of the constructivist teaching theories because their understanding and application in the teaching process can help achieve better learning outcomes, specifically students’ better ability to use visual arts knowledge in everyday life.</p> Zlata Tomljenović Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 13 32 10.26529/cepsj.913 Connecting Art Education Learning Tasks with the Artistic Field: The Factor of Quality in Art Lessons <p>This theoretical study deals with interconnecting learning tasks of art education with the parent discipline of art education (that is, with the artistic field as defined by Pierre Bourdieu, 1996), while reflecting on the quality of art lessons in the Czech Republic. The authors draw on current theoretical and empirical research of quality that identifies individual quality factors. The most salient factors are the connection with the artistic field and the resulting ability of conceptual integration, together with curricular normativity, the intentional work of the teacher with educational content, characteristics of teaching such as the support of divergence, creative approaches, associativity, imagination, reflection, searching for intersections between pupils’ experience and the content of the subject, etc. The text also emphasises the fact that judgement on the quality of learning tasks should be based only on ontological-didactic and psychological-didactic aspects. The former relate to the cultural and artistic context of learning tasks, that is, the current values in the field of visual culture and the artistic field, while the latter consider the personal characteristics of each and every pupil.</p> Petra Šobáňová Jana Jiroutová Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 33 54 10.26529/cepsj.924 Interdisciplinary Connections through Transmedia Narratives in Art Education <p>The world of new media has inevitably changed teachers’ and students’ attitude towards information. Data of all kinds and from any scientific field are easily available at any time. Nevertheless, isolated data have nothing to do with knowledge. We refer to ‘knowledge’ when an interdependence of information has a particular significance in defined conditions. How to use and connect this information is one of the primary issues teachers have to engage with since they are still the main organisers of the educational process. Taking into account the objectives of his/her explanations, he/she chooses certain relevant contents, and connects them, striving for an interdisciplinary view of the world that makes sense and gives sense to his/her explanations, all in an attempt to motivate students in their approach to knowledge. This article presents research in which the participants, future art teachers, had to answer a questionnaire that required comparing artistic compositions and compositions present in nature. Almost half of them could not find proper examples, even though the participants were students who should have been able to manage contents from both fields. Understanding how art follows nature is an important goal within the education of future art teachers. Difficulty in connecting data, transferring knowledge, giving meaning to images and understanding visual and verbal discourse seem to be a persistent problem in many aspects of their education. Possible strategies to improve the situation using transmedia narratives are presented in the conclusion.</p> Bea Tomšič Amon Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 55 74 10.26529/cepsj.916 “Do not touch it!” Today’s Children’s Visual Competencies in Comparison with the Pre-Digital Era in Light of their Art Educational Environment <p>The task of twenty-first century art education is to contribute to the blossoming of the child’s personality. In this article, I approach this challenge from two principal directions, both of which provide a window onto unfamiliar terrain. This project sought to answer the following research questions: How do plastic, spatial (3D) creative capacities develop, and how do they compare with the kindergarten’s accustomed advancement of picture-creating, planar (2D) capabilities? How do kindergartners’ skills as measured in the 1970s compare with those of kindergartners today? A follow-on project examined children’s skills in the context of built environment education, asking the questions: Where, and with whom, do children find the best conditions for creation and arts education? What kinds of environments are most favourable? The results showed a clear deterioration of children’s drawing development from 1974 until today, as well as from drawings in both studies to modelling today. However, a more promising discovery was that depictions of movement appear much sooner in the case of plastic arts works than in drawings. This opens the way to an orientation that in our increasingly urbanised world, can help our children grow into adults who responsibly shape our environment, sensitive to their own age, as self-possessed problem solvers, employing the toolkit of education through art. The study is based on ongoing, long-term research of the 3612+ Visual Skills Lab group, employing both qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate the artistic proficiencies of nearly a thousand children, mostly aged 3–7, in dozens of kindergartens in Hungary, through hands-on exercises as well as surveys of teachers, parents and other interested parties.</p> Gabriella Pataky Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 75 96 10.26529/cepsj.925 The State of Art Appreciation among Nine- and Ten-Year-Old Students in Slovenian Primary Schools <p class="Paragraph" style="margin-top: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-GB">In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, the students’ own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalisation of works of art play an equally important role. In art education practice, we manage to provide adequate incentives and are able to follow incentives for artistic expression, but pay less attention to developing art appreciation. This research presents the results of a study that monitored the development of art appreciation abilities among 9- and 10-year-old students (4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> grades; <em>n </em>= 2794) in Slovenian primary schools. The level of art appreciation abilities was rather average, but was more developed among older students and girls. In monitoring the school stratum, we did, however, notice a statistically significant difference regarding perception, whereby students in urban schools performed better than their peers in suburban schools. </span></p> Jerneja Herzog Matjaž Duh Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 97 116 10.26529/cepsj.935 Artists/Ceramists in the Role of University Teachers <p>The teaching of ceramics is a topic that has been much discussed in pedagogical discourse throughout the entire second half of the twentieth century and until today. The present study deals with the topic of third-level education in the field of ceramics at Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic. The incorporation of ceramics into the education of future art teachers in Olomouc was not always a matter of course as it is today. It underwent many changes during the second half of the twentieth century. Several personalities played an important role in the process of the gradual consolidation of its position in pedagogical education. The most important of these are presented in this study. It describes their main contribution to the field, deals with their attitudes to teaching ceramics, and above all analyses the interconnection of their own art or scientific research theoretical work with the content of teaching. The historical-methodological study connects its theme with historical socio-political events, as well as with the development of fine arts in the second half of the twentieth century. Thus, it contributes to the formation of a comprehensive picture of the topic “artists as art teachers” in the Europe-wide context.</p> Silvie Novotná Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 117 142 10.26529/cepsj.939 The Self-Portrait as a Means of Self-Investigation, Self-Projection and Identification among the Primary School Population in Croatia <p>The self-portrait is a reflection of the personality in a visual, physical sense, as a concrete form, a summary of the external characteristics of the artist, but also in a psychological sense, when the self-portrait becomes a mediator of communication with the self, a medium of self-investigation. In this way, the self-portrait exists as a means of self-reflection, self-awareness and acceptance of the Self. It contains three primary values: subjective, objective and the archetype. Considering that the self-portrait is not exclusively a means of introspection reserved only for artistic practice, but also includes activities of the entire population, ranging from early childhood to old age, the projective and reflexive features of this motif began to be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These findings, as well the need for a <em>new role</em> for art teachers arising from the cognitive, emotional and moral needs of children and youth involved in the regular education system in the Republic of Croatia, gave rise to the project <em>The</em> <em>Self-Portrait as a Means of Self-Investigation, Self-Projection and Identification</em>, which was realised in the regular primary educational process, in fifth-grade art classes. The expressive and projective dimensions of children’s drawings, which can indicate the possibility of diagnostic and potentially therapeutic activity within the regular primary education system, were taken as a starting point. The project also sought to examine the impact of rational-cognitive principles of teaching on children’s creativity and expression.</p> Dunja Pivac Maja Zemunik Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 143 164 10.26529/cepsj.927 Cross-Curricular Analysis of Picture Books in the Fifth Grade of Primary School: A Case Study <p>Picture books discussed with pupils in primary school are considered multimodal texts, as they combine at least two communication codes (verbal and visual). A discussion involving picture books will normally be included in Slovenian language lessons, with pupils focussing mostly on the text. The visual aspect, which equally carries a message, is often neglected. The objective of the present case study that was conducted among fifth-grade primary school pupils in the 2018/19 school year was to explore how a cross-curricular approach to planning and executing the lessons in the Slovenian language and visual art can help pupils learn about the characteristics of the picture book as a multimodal text. We conducted a set of didactic activities entitled <em>Getting to know the picture book</em>, introducing selected picture books to pupils as part of their Slovenian language classes, which resulted in them developing their receptive skills while observing and defining the structure of the texts. In visual art classes, the pupils learned about the visual features of the picture book. As a productive response to the picture book discussed, the pupils were instructed to complete the following tasks: design a cover for their own picture book, design endpapers, illustrate their own poem, and produce their own leporello.&nbsp; The survey involved 21 pupils, a generalist teacher, and a researcher in art didactics. The case study was completed in five weeks. The data were obtained by means of initial and final testing, questionnaires for pupils, and participant observation.</p> Janja Batič Petra Lebar Kac Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 165 185 10.26529/cepsj.910 Teachers’ Views on the Use of Photography in Teaching Arts in Croatian Primary Schools <p>Contemporary art education relies on the use of diverse methods, approaches, art techniques, and technologies. Although photography is part of daily visual communication and gallery exhibitions, there is no structured approach to photography as a medium for learning the arts in Croatian primary schools. The objectives of the quantitative study were to determine art teachers’ views on (1) their knowledge about photography, (2) their abilities in using photography in art teaching, (3) obstacles to using photography in art teaching, and (4) the importance of photography in students’ visual culture. Regarding the fourth objective, we wanted to examine possible differences in terms of the teachers’ gender, age, and length of service. A survey was conducted with 112 teachers who teach arts in 5<sup>th</sup> to 8<sup>th</sup> grades in 17 Croatian counties. The results of the descriptive statistics were supplemented with a qualitative analysis of the teachers’ responses in the questionnaire. The results show that the teachers perceive their knowledge about photography obtained by formal education as average, but they assess their abilities to apply photography in their lessons as slightly better. The main problem, in their view, is a low number of art lessons in the Croatian curriculum. The teachers generally agree that photography is very important in a student’s visual culture, regardless of the teachers’ gender, age. and years of service. These findings indicate the need to place greater emphasis on photography as an artistic medium in primary school, as it may generate new visual knowledge and artistic skills.</p> Nina Licul Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 187 205 10.26529/cepsj.909 Changes in Learning Style Preferences of Physical Education Students <p>Identification of learning styles is one way of contributing to a more efficient teaching process, and it helps teachers choose an effective teaching strategy. This study reports a three-year process to explain the change in the learning styles of physical education students. It also involves an assessment of the overall academic achievement of physical education students based on their learning style preferences throughout this process. Forty-one &nbsp;physical education students, 41.5% of whom were female, comprised the sample. The study used a longitudinal study/panel study design to observe the time-dependent variation of learning styles. The data were collected using the Kolb Learning Style Inventory 3&nbsp; and analysed using a Chi-Squared (χ<sup>2</sup>) test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Mann-Whitney U test. The results of the analysis showed that the curriculum of the PE teaching department did not lead to a change in the learning styles of students studying in this department. Additionally, the overall academic achievement of the physical education students did not vary for the first (Semester 3) and second measurements (Semester 5) based on their learning style preferences. However, for the third measurement (Semester 7), learning style preferences had differing effects on their academic achievement.</p> Ceyhun Alemdağ Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 207 220 10.26529/cepsj.613 The Relevance of Learning Approaches and Temporal Perspective for Test-Taking <p>Test-taking is an integral part of students’ lives, and the way they approach tests may be of high relevance for their academic outcomes. Therefore, the present study addressed the way college students reflect on the process of preparing for tests. Specifically, it investigated the relevance of students' achievement goals, perceived academic control, and consideration of future consequences for several aspects of the test-taking process. The results obtained revealed mastery goals, perceived academic control, and the ability to disengage from the present moment as significant predictors of students’ satisfaction with knowledge. Furthermore, higher success optimism was associated with having higher perceived academic control, more pronounced mastery goals, less pronounced social solidarity goals, and a higher tendency to focus on the future, whereas perceived academic control was revealed to be a significant predictor of the perceived ease of preparing for tests.</p> Andreja Bubić Copyright (c) 2019 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 221 242 10.26529/cepsj.586 Boštjan Jurečič, A Study of the Parallels between Visual Art and Music: The Big Misconception, Cambridge Scholars Publishing: 2019; 147 pp.: ISBN 978-1527540224 Jurij Selan Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 243 245 10.26529/cepsj.1048 Robert Potočnik and Iztok Devetak, Heritage Preservation and Interdisciplinary Approach through Fine Art and Science Education, Digit s.r.o.: 2020; 110 pp.: ISBN: 978-80-968441-5-9 Matija Purkat Copyright (c) 2020 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 10 4 247 250 10.26529/cepsj.1049