Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal <p>The Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal devoted to publishing research papers in different fields of education, including scientific.</p> en-US <p>In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.</p> (Iztok Devetak) (Lea Vrečko) Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Education in the Covid-19 Era - “We will find a way or we will make it”: Facing the Challenges of the Pandemic in Education Ana Pešikan, Hannele Niemi, Iztok Devetak Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Schooling Interrupted: Educating Children and Youth in the Covid-19 Era <p>Distance education has been practised for generations, although its purpose and form have changed. Correspondence courses, in which students receive instruction via mail and respond with assignments or questions to the instructor, date back to the mid-1800s, if not earlier. As technology changed, so did the nature of distance education. Radio, television, computers, and, most recently, the internet have supported distance education over the years. Research studies on the use and effectiveness of distance education focus almost exclusively on higher education. A recent research synthesis suggests that fewer than five per cent of the studies have addressed K-12 education. The Covid-19 pandemic, however, has brought distance education into K-12 schools and classrooms. Distance education in the Covid-19 era has been referred to as ‘emergency remote teaching’ (ERT) because, with little research on which to rely, teachers must improvise quick solutions under less-than-ideal circumstances, a situation that causes many teachers to experience stress. The purpose of this paper is to address five fundamental questions. First, what problems have K-12 school administrators and teachers faced in implementing ERT? Second, under what conditions has ERT been effective since the advent of the Covid-19 pandemic? Third, what are the strengths of ERT in K-12 schools and classrooms? Fourth, what are the weaknesses of ERT in K-12 schools and classrooms? Fifth, to what extent will lessons learned from ERT influence teaching and learning when the pandemic abates? The paper concludes with a brief set of recommendations. Throughout the paper, the focus is on K-12 education.</p> Lorin W. Anderson Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Covid-19 Learning Crisis as a Challenge and an Opportunity for Schools: An Evidence Review and Conceptual Synthesis of Research-Based Tools for Sustainable Change <p>This paper advances our understanding of how schools can become change agents capable of transforming local practice to address the challenges arising from the Covid-19 pandemic. It presents a novel application of cultural-historical activity theory to reinterpret evidence on widespread learning loss and increasing educational inequities resulting from the pandemic, and to identify scalable transformative learning opportunities through reframing the crisis as a double stimulation. By reviewing evidence of the emerging educational landscape, we first develop a picture of the new ‘problem space’ upon which schools must act. We develop a problem space map to serve as the first stimulus to articulate local challenges. Integrating this problem space with research on professional change, we identify conceptual tools to capture learning gaps and implement pedagogic interventions at scale, in order to enhance schools’ agency in directly addressing the crisis. These tools can act as the second stimulus, enabling educators to address local challenges. We conclude by discussing the Covid-19 educational crisis as a unique stimulus for professional learning and outline the potential for durable shifts in educational thinking and practice beyond the pandemic. We argue that this unprecedented historic disruption can be harnessed as a transformative professional learning opportunity. In particular, we consider how research on professional change offers local, scalable interventions and tools that can support educators in preventing the new insights from ‘slipping away’ post-pandemic. Utilising the notions of boundaries and tool-mediated professional change, we examine the ways in which this disruption generates opportunities to envision alternative futures for equitable learning in school.</p> Riikka Hofmann, Gabrielle Arenge, Siobhan Dickens, Javiera Marfan, Mairead Ryan, Ngee Derk Tiong, Bhaveet Radia, Lenka Janik Blaskova Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Challenge to Educational Reforms during a Global Emergency: The Case of Progressive Science Education <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article argues that what is most at risk in schooling during a global pandemic, or other similar broad challenges to normal functioning, are those elements that might be considered the less traditional and so the most progressive. After setting out some general background common to the challenge faced by schools and school teachers, this argument is exemplified through the case of school science education. Two particular aspects are considered: one related to pedagogy (responding to learners’ alternative conceptions or ‘misconceptions’) and one related to curriculum (teaching about the nature of science). These are considered ‘progressive’ features in the sense that they have widely been championed as ways of improving and reforming science education across a wide range of national contexts but can be understood to have faced resistance both in the sense of being opposed by ‘reactionary’ stakeholders and in terms of the level of support for teacher adoption. It is argued that at a time when the education system is placed under extreme stress, such progressive elements are at particular risk as teachers and administrators may view them as ‘extras’ rather than ‘core’ features of practice and/or as reflecting more ‘difficult’ educational objectives that may need to be de-prioritised (and so neglected) for the time being. In that sense, they are fragile aspects of practice that lack the resilience of more established, and thus robust, features. It is concluded that where progressive elements are especially valued, they need to become sufficiently embedded in custom and practice to no longer be viewed as luxuries but rather to be recognised as core elements of good teaching to be protected and maintained during a period of emergency.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Keith S. Taber Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The EU’s Education Policy Response to the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Discourse and Content Analysis <p>Following the severe impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on education systems in Europe, the EU has been called upon to provide a concerted response to the crisis in a context where member states provided their own diverse responses. Against this background, the aim of this article is to uncover and critically examine the EU’s education policy discourse and promoted narratives since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, and by doing so evaluate the EU’s response-ability for education recovery during the crisis. A conceptual framework has been devised to analyse the responsiveness of an international entity, such as the EU, based on organisational and neo-institutionalist theories. Data were collected through a combination of discourse analysis and computer-assisted content analysis, which was applied to official EU education policy documents published in 2020. The following categories emerged from the analysis process, indicating that the EU perceives education recovery as: “upskilling and reskilling”, “digital transformation” and “sustainable development”. The findings suggest a substantial continuation between the EU’s pre- and post-Covid-19 strategy in the education sector, and even an acceleration in the same direction, revealing a lack of real change in the EU’s response, which was focused predominantly on the economic and employability approach to education.</p> Vasileios Symeonidis, Denis Francesconi, Evi Agostini Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Educational Policies During the Lockdown: Measures in Spain after Covid-19 <p>The pandemic has disrupted students’ lives, learning, and well-being worldwide and exacerbated existing disparities in education. Countries have unevenly followed policy recommendations to ensure education by non-governmental agencies, and in some cases, political and economic ideology has directly influenced the decisions taken, Spain being a case in point. The instructions and regulations published in April 2020 in Spain are analysed and compared in order to regulate the end of the school year, its evaluation, and the start of the new year, given the situation of suspension of classes during and the confinement of the Spanish population decreed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The 20 documents published by the Autonomous Communities of Spain are subjected to critical discourse analysis. Their approaches and the aspects they highlight or ignore are examined to identify the different models of education that each region defends in times of crisis. There are significant differences between conservative and progressive regions, the latter being more inclined to implement the recommendations of non-governmental organisations.</p> Enrique-Javier Díez-Gutiérrez, Katherine Gajardo Espinoza Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Challenge Accepted: Experiences of Turkish Faculty Members at the Time of Emergency Remote Teaching <p>The Covid-19 pandemic caught everyone unprepared. Higher education institutions were expected to be the least affected due to their long history of distance education, which has enabled the development of expertise and technical infrastructure, but were they? The present study focuses on faculty members’ experiences at the time of emergency remote teaching and afterwards. The survey method was devised to conduct the study. An online questionnaire called the Emergency Remote Teaching Views Questionnaire was developed by the researchers and administered at higher education institutions throughout Turkey. With a combination of convenience and snowball sampling, 351 faculty members from 72 different public and private higher education institutions were reached. The descriptive analysis of the data revealed that almost 62% of the faculty members had never taken any form of training regarding online distance education before the Covid-19 pandemic. Although one fifth of the faculty members indicated that they had had distance education experience three times or more before the pandemic, around 62% of them encountered remote teaching for the first time. Many faculty members indicated that they spent more time on remote teaching than face-to-face teaching; they had trouble following students’ development; the students were disinterested in the classes; they had technical problems, but they also received support from their institutions. Although only one fourth of the faculty members reported being unsure about the quality of their remote teaching, three fourths of them believed that it was not as fruitful as face-to-face teaching. This was especially evident in the area of assessment and evaluation. Based on these results, it can be concluded that higher education institutions were caught unprepared, but their adaptation was very quick.</p> Faik Özgür Karataş, Sevil Akaygun, Suat Çelik, Mehmet Kokoç, Sevgi Nur Yılmaz Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Digitisation or Digitalisation: Diverse Practices of the Distance Education Period in Finland <p>This case study explores how Finnish primary school teachers orchestrated school days and how teachers and headmasters organised virtual workplace collaboration and collaborated with parents during a period of distance education forced by the Covid-19 crisis in Spring 2020. The data was collected by interviewing primary and secondary school teachers (n = 15) from eight schools in various parts of Finland. Teachers’ experiences were analysed with qualitative content analysis. In this study, the school is seen as a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) and the Covid-19 crisis as a disorder forcing teachers to adapt to a rapidly changing environment. Teachers are viewed here as innovators who address both pedagogical and digital challenges under abnormal circumstances. We identify diverse practices at different stages of digitalisation during the distance education period within four domains: 1) structures of school days, 2) forms of teaching, 3) collaborative activities of teachers and headmaster, and 4) forms of home and school collaboration. We also identify three groups of enablers of distance education practices: 1) the use of digital technology, 2) digipedagogical competence of the teachers, and 3) the ability of teachers to act as adaptive innovators. We find that teachers’ ability to innovate and to adapt pedagogical and digipedagogical expertise become critical success factors when change is forced upon the educational field. We suggest that the results of this study, portrayed as the enablers and domains of distance education, be utilised in planning post-Covid education. All stakeholders influencing schools at different levels should be included in envisioning and implementing future classroom practices of innovative post-Covid schools.</p> Tiina Korhonen, Leenu Juurola, Laura Salo, Johanna Airaksinen Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Lost Trust? The Experiences of Teachers and Students during Schooling Disrupted by the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>This paper aims to help understand how relational trust between students and teachers embedded in the teaching-learning process unfolded during the emergency distance and flexible hybrid education in Serbia in 2020. It also identifies niches in student-teacher relationships that hold potential for repairing and building trust. For the student-teacher relationship to be trust-based and thus conducive to students’ learning and wellbeing, a consensus about role expectations must be achieved. As the Covid-19 crisis interrupted schooling and education, participants faced uncertainties and ambiguities in role enactment, and the cornerstones of relational trust were disrupted. In an effort to understand 1) the context in which trust was challenged, 2) the ways in which trust was disrupted, and 3) the opportunities for its restoration, we relied on a multi-genre dynamic storytelling approach to data collection and values analysis for data processing. A total of 136 students and 117 teachers from 22 schools wrote 581 narratives in three genres: stories, letters and requests. The analysis yielded 22 codes that allowed further understanding of how changes in structural and institutional conditions affected both students’ and teachers’ expectations of each other, and how incongruence of these expectations fed into feelings of helplessness for both students and teachers, disengagement from learning for students, and heavy workload and poor performance for teachers. In addition, the narratives account for positive outcomes when these expectations were met, and for opportunities for trust-building if students’ and teachers’ perspectives are brought to each other’s attention and negotiated locally. Finally, recommendations for restoring trust are given.</p> Tijana Jokić Zorkić, Katarina Mićić, Tunde Kovacs Cerović Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Teachers’ Perceptions of Assessment and Feedback Practices in Finland’s Foreign Language Classes During the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>In this paper, we examine how the Covid-19 pandemic affected the quality of teachers’ assessment and feedback in Finland’s foreign language classes during the remote teaching period in spring 2020. Multifaceted assessment and feedback practices are underscored in Finland’s core curricula, forming a focal aspect of learning. Therefore, we studied teachers’ perceptions of their assessment and feedback practices at different school levels during the remote teaching period and how they considered the remote teaching period in students’ final assessment at the end of basic education. Data were collected through an online questionnaire and analysed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Most of the 176 respondents felt that assessment and feedback practices were implemented successfully, and the final assessment was realistic and reliable. However, teachers’ perceptions were mixed on several issues, and differences were found in the amount and form of feedback between respondents and school levels or what competence demonstration or assignments to count towards the final assessment. In addition, the remote teaching period usually had less influence on students’ final grades than the last few months of basic education. The results suggest that more attention should be paid to enhancing feedback practices and connecting with students during remote teaching periods.</p> Toni Mäkipää, Kaisa Hahl, Milla Luodonpää-Manni Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Higher Education Students’ Experience of Emergency Remote Teaching during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Relation to Self-Regulation and Positivity <p>The main objective of the present research was to explore students’ experiences of emergency remote teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic. Specifically, we were interested in how strategies for coping with an emergency situation, learning strategies and positivity relate to this experience. A total of 337 university students participated in the study. The data were collected with an online questionnaire. The results show that students used more adaptive coping strategies (positive reappraisal, acceptance and refocus on planning) and fewer maladaptive strategies (blaming others, catastrophising). Furthermore, students reported the frequent use of two self-regulated learning strategies, i.e., environment structuring and goal setting, and the less frequent use of task strategies. Self-regulation and positivity explained a total of 40% of the variance of the students’ experience during the pandemic. Important predictors for more constructive experience were the frequent use of goal setting and environment structuring strategies, more pronounced positivity, and less frequent use of the catastrophising coping strategy. The research findings contribute to a better understanding of students’ emergency remote teaching and learning experience during the pandemic and its correlates. Moreover, the findings could enable academic staff to focus on the essential elements when supporting students to cope with the pandemic.</p> Mojca Juriševič, Lana Lavrih, Amela Lišić, Neža Podlogar , Urška Žerak Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Slovenian Parents’ Views on Emergency Remote Schooling during the First Wave of the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>In early 2020, the whole world was confronted with the emergence of the new SARS-CoV-2 virus. Due to restrictive measures, Slovenia, like most other countries, was forced to close all educational institutions. Teaching and learning shifted from classrooms to an online environment, which was a major challenge for teachers, students and their parents and required a significant amount of adaptation and effort. In May 2020, we conducted a study to investigate parents’ attitudes toward emergency remote schooling. The study included 313 parents of students from the last triad of primary (compulsory) school (Grades 7–9; 12–15 years old), 147 parents of secondary school students (Years 1–3; 15–18 years old) and 35 parents of students in their final (4<sup>th</sup>) year of secondary school (18–19 years old). Specifically, parents of primary school adolescent children, in particular, reported having the most difficulty coordinating their work and the remote schooling of their child, and they also reported more difficulty motivating their child to complete schoolwork at home than the other two groups of parents did. Parents of secondary school students in Year 4 were most likely to miss personal contact with the teacher and rated emergency remote schooling as more stressful than the other two groups of parents. In general, parents rated emergency remote schooling to be more complicated and difficult than traditional classroom instruction. Most parents agree that such schooling provides students with less knowledge, which is also less consolidated, although they perceived teachers’ remote help for students quite positively. They also believe that online education will become important in the future.</p> Melita Puklek Levpušček, Luka Uršič Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Effective Physical Education Distance Learning Models during the Covid-19 Epidemic <p>The Covid-19 epidemic has had a strong impact on the implementation of the entire educational process due to the closure of public life and schools. Physical education (PE) teachers were faced with the challenge of conveying at a distance the learning content that they would otherwise teach in the sports hall. Our research aimed to determine which PE distance learning models proved to be the most effective during the epidemic, resulting in a high level of pupils’ activity despite participation from home. In the process of data collection, we included 33 PE distance learning lessons at the lower secondary level, where six pupils (3 girls and 3 boys) wore accelerometers in each lesson (n = 198 pupils). The results showed that the most effective model was the flipped learning teaching model, where pupils were given an overview in advance of the different forms of teacher video recordings. Then they also actively participated with their ideas in the performance of the online lesson. A statistically significantly less efficient version of the flipped learning teaching model had prepared interactive assignments and games. This was followed by a combination of online frontal teaching with station work and frontal teaching. The least effective was independent work carried out by the pupils according to the instructions prepared by the teacher. Although the two flipped learning teaching models were the most effective in terms of exercise intensity, it is very difficult to implement them in practice because they require too much teacher time.</p> Tanja Petrušič, Vesna Štemberger Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Effects of Remote Pandemic Education on Crafts Pedagogy: Opportunities, Challenges, and Interaction <p>The Covid-19 pandemic caused many sudden social changes, including a shift to remote education in many countries. In Finland, remote education also concerns crafts as a standard school subject, combining aspects of art, design, textile, and technology in basic education. Accordingly, Finnish craft teachers faced the unprecedented situation of teaching remotely a subject, which often involves hands-on activities with tangible tools and materials. The present study explores how craft pedagogy has been adapted to remote education by looking at the opportunities and challenges it faces and the effects on classroom interaction. The data consist of the output of two webinars (i.e. 27 group assignments from 123 participants) organised in the autumn of 2020 and targeted at craft teachers and student craft teachers at various levels of the education system. The qualitative, data-driven content analysis reveals that remote teaching provides beneficial opportunities for involving students’ everyday lives and families in craft education. However, challenges exist relating to the unequal distribution of materials, as well as technical and social resources at different levels of education and in various contexts. Our study also finds that remote teaching is more teacher-centred and task-oriented than classroom interaction. Online teaching facilities allow teachers to provide students with more individual feedback but make maintaining students’ peer interaction difficult. Although remote craft education was considered very challenging at first, teachers have managed to create useful pedagogical practices to be utilised in and beyond the era of the Covid-19 pandemic.</p> Anna Kouhia, Kaiju Kangas, Sirpa Kokko Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Physics Teaching in Croatian Elementary and High Schools during the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>In spring 2020, 916 elementary schools and 443 high schools were closed in Croatia due to the Covid-19 pandemic and remote teaching was introduced. This had an impact on physics teaching as an experimental subject. In addition to positive aspects concealed in new experiences and work perspectives, the sudden transition from conventional face-to-face teaching to a remote format had an undeniable negative impact on physics teaching in elementary and high schools. In order to mitigate the effects and provide a detailed insight into the problems that arose during this transition, we conducted a quantitative study among teachers of physics in elementary and high schools in Croatia, with the aim of identifying logistical and technical problems and challenges in physics teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire with five parts (general data, teaching physics during the Covid-19 pandemic, experiments, sociological component, exchange of experience) was completed by 178 Croatian teachers. The results irrefutably point to the flexibility and responsiveness of physics teachers, an increase in the teachers’ workload, a lack of the experimental work that forms an essential part of the subject of physics, and a lack of teacher knowledge (in ICT), skills and equipment for conducting distance teaching. However, it also emerged that online teaching, if carefully designed and individualised, can stimulate additional commitment and interest in the subject among students. The paper presents the research findings in detail, with the aim of helping physics teachers to plan further teaching more effectively as and if the pandemic progresses.</p> Ivana Štibi, Mojca Čepič, Jerneja Pavlin Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Croatian Mathematics Teachers and Remote Education During Covid-19: What did They Learn? <p>The study reported in this paper aims to show how Croatian lower-secondary mathematics teachers coped with remote education during the lockdown necessitated by the Covid-19 pandemic. The research design refers to the case study of six teachers. On five occasions, the teachers were interviewed about the organisation of their virtual classrooms, forms of assessment, and utilisation of (digital) teaching resources from the beginning of March until the end of June 2020. The study results showed that social parameters were prominent factors in the decision-making of many teachers regarding teaching remotely. For example, the teachers always put students’ needs first: they were accessible almost all day to their students, they tried not to overload students and provided daily feedback on their work. In addition, the teachers in the study raised the issue of academic dishonesty in remote education – the digital environment made cheating easier and meant that the usual assessment formats became unfeasible. Although the findings provide insight into the work of teachers during a pandemic, a larger sample would provide generalisations about the changes in workload that mathematics teachers experienced during remote education.</p> Ljerka Jukić Matić Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Opinion of Slovene (Mother Tongue) Teachers on Distance Learning in Primary Schools <p>The Slovene language has several roles in the educational process in the Republic of Slovenia, including its role as a subject in the curriculum in its own right. It is a basic general education subject in public primary schools and has the most hours of all of the subjects. All teachers were forced to teach remotely for the first time in the history of education (first during the 2019/20 school year and then in the 2020/21 school year) during the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic. The results of a survey comprising 348 teachers with the ability to teach the mother tongue at primary school level (grades 1–9 of primary school; 59% were class curriculum teachers and 41% were Slovene language teachers) show, among other things, that teachers mostly have a good attitude towards distance teaching and feel empowered for this type of teaching, although they feel that this method makes them mentally and physically more tired than teaching in the classroom. Among the advantages of distance teaching, teachers mention the greater use of modern information and communication technology, more use of e-material and the opportunity for formal monitoring of students. In their opinion, the biggest problems of distance teaching (of the Slovene language) include: lack of student participation; lack of non-verbal communication, thus creating difficulties in understanding; and technical issues. Most teachers believe that students acquire less knowledge or far less knowledge by distance education than they would from education in the classroom. Teachers who feel more empowered to teach remotely also have a better attitude towards teaching their mother tongue and are more satisfied with the communication aspect with students in distant teaching. Teachers who have received the necessary training for distance teaching as part of their work feel more empowered to teach this way than teachers who have not had such training.</p> Tomaž Petek Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Cath Gristy, Linda Hargreaves, and Silvie R. Kučerová, Educational Research and Schooling in Rural Europe: An Engagement with Changing Patterns of Education, Space and Place, Information Age Publishing, 2020; 406 pp, ISBN: 978-1-64802-163-3 Laurence Lasselle Copyright (c) 2021 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200