Online Learning During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Readiness and Satisfaction among Indonesian Students

  • Mohamad Arief Rafsanjani Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Heni Purwa Pamungkas Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Nujmatul Laily Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
  • Andri Eko Prabowo Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Islam Riau, Indonesia
Keywords: Covid-19, online-learning, students readiness, students satisfaction


The spread of Covid-19 has affected the entire world, including the education sector in Indonesia. This study examines the relationship between Indonesian students’ readiness and students satisfaction with online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. It used an online questionnaire to reach 518 students as a participant. Structural equation modelling (SEM) with SmartPLS software was utilised to examine the relationship between the variables. The finding indicated four dimensions of student readiness (online student attributes, time management, technical competencies, and online communication competencies) closely related to students’ satisfaction with online learning. The result provided an understanding of the condition of online learning satisfaction from students readiness point of view during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. This study serves as a starting point for stakeholders (government and education institutions) in making future policies.


Download data is not yet available.


Acharya, B., & Lee, J. (2018). Users’ perspective on the adoption of e-learning in developing countries: The case of Nepal with a conjoint-based discrete choice approach. Telematics and Informatics, 35(6), 1733–1743.

Anggraeni, D. M., & Sole, F. B. (2018). E-Learning Moodle, Media Pembelajaran Fisika Abad 21. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengkajian Ilmu Pendidikan: e-Saintika, 1(2), 57.

Ansong, E., Boateng, S. L., Boateng, R., & Effah, J. (2016). Determinants of E-Learning Adoption in Universities: Evidence from a Developing Country. 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).

Ashrafi, A., Zareravasan, A., Rabiee Savoji, S., & Amani, M. (2020). Exploring factors influencing students’ continuance intention to use the learning management system (LMS): A multi-perspective framework. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–23.

Assunção Flores, M., & Gago, M. (2020). Teacher education in times of COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal: national, institutional and pedagogical responses. Journal of Education for Teaching, 1–10.

Blankenberger, B., & Williams, A. M. (2020). COVID and the impact on higher education: The essential role of integrity and accountability. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 42(3), 404–423.

Bolliger, D. U., & Halupa, C. (2012). Student perceptions of satisfaction and anxiety in an online doctoral program. Distance Education, 33(1), 81–98.

Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., & Barbaranelli, C. (2011). The contribution of personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs to academic achievement: A longitudinal study. Br J Educ Psychol, 81(1), 78–96.

Chaeruman, U. A. (2018). Encouraging E-Learning Implementation. Jurnal Teknodik, 12(1), 025.

Chang, M.-M., & Ho, C.-M. (2009, 2009/07/01). Effects of locus of control and learner-control on web-based language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(3), 189–206.

Cho, M.-H., & Shen, D. (2013, 2013/11/01). Self-regulation in online learning. Distance Education, 34(3), 290–301.

Discenza, R., Howard, C., & Schenk, K. D. (2001). The Design and Management of Effective Distance Learning Programs. Idea Group Pub.

Dziuban, C., Moskal, P., Thompson, J., Kramer, L., Decantis, G., & Hermsdorfer, A. (2015). Student Satisfaction with Online Learning: Is it a Psychological Contract? Online Learning, 19(2).

Garrison, R., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Fung, T. (2019). Student role adjustment in online communities of inquiry: Model and instrument validation. Online Learning, 8(2), 61–74.

Goh, W. W., Hong, J. L., & Gunawan, W. (2014). Exploring Lecturers’ Perceptions of Learning Management System: An Empirical Study Based on TAM. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 4(3), 48.

Gülbahar, Y. (2009). E-learning. Pegem A Publication.

Hackman, M. Z., & Walker, K. B. (1990, 1990/07/01). Instructional communication in the televised classroom: The effects of system design and teacher immediacy on student learning and satisfaction. Communication Education, 39(3), 196–206.

Handarini, O. I., & Wulandari, S. S. (2020). Online learning as an alternative in learning from home during the Covid-19 pandemic. JPAP (Jurnal Pendidikan Administrasi Perkantoran), 8(3).

Joo, Y. J., Kim, N., & Kim, N. H. (2016, 2016/08/01). Factors predicting online university students’ use of a mobile learning management system (m-LMS). Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 611–630.

Joshanloo, M., & Jovanović, V. (2020, 2020/06/01). The relationship between gender and life satisfaction: analysis across demographic groups and global regions. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 23(3), 331–338.

Jovanović, V. (2017). Measurement Invariance of the Serbian Version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale Across Age, Gender, and Time. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(4), 555–563.

Kalloo, R. C., Mitchell, B., & Kamalodeen, V. J. (2020). Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in Trinidad and Tobago: challenges and opportunities for teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 452–462.

Karana, K. P. (2020). The survey during learning from home policy among the students in Indonesia. UNICEF Indonesia.

Karataş, S., & Şimşek, N. (2009). Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on “Equivalency of Experiences” According to Students’ Academic Achievements and Satisfactions. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(1), 65–74.

Kaunang, S. T. G., & Usagawa, T. (2017). A New Approach for Delivering e-Learning Complex Courses in Indonesia. International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management e-Learning, 7(2), 132–145.

Kaymak, Z. D., & Horzum, M. B. (2013). Relationship between online learning readiness and structure and interaction of online learning students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(3), 1792–1797.

Kemenpppa. (2020). Hearing Indonesian children's voices about covid-19 through the AADC-19 survey. Publikasi Dan Media Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak.

Kuntoro, R. D., & Al-Hawamdeh, S. (2003). E-learning in higher educational institutions in Indonesia. Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, 2(4), 361–374.

Kuo, Y.-C., Walker, A. E., Belland, B. R., & Schroder, K. E. E. (2013). A predictive study of student satisfaction in online education programs. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(1), 16–39.

Lestariyanti, E. (2020). Mini-Review Pembelajaran Daring Selama Pandemi Covid-19: Keuntungan dan Tantangan. Jurnal Prakarsa Paedagogia, 3(1), 89–96.

Liaw, S.-S., & Huang, H.-M. (2013). Perceived satisfaction, perceived usefulness and interactive learning environments as predictors to self-regulation in e-learning environments. Computers & Education, 60(1), 14–24.

Lin, B., & Hsieh, C.-t. (2001). Web-based teaching and learner control: a research review. Computers & Education, 37(3), 377–386.

Martin, F., Stamper, B., & Flowers, C. (2020). Examining Student Perception of Readiness for Online Learning: Importance and Confidence. Online Learning, 24(2).

Mathema, K. B. (2007). Crisis in education and future challenges for Nepal. European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, 31(Spring), 46–66.

McVay, M. (2001). How to be a successful distance learning student: Learning on the internet (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.

Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(3), 492–505.

Okpara, J. O., Squillace, M., & Erondu, E. A. (2005). Gender differences and job satisfaction: A study of university teachers in the United States. Women in Management Review, 20(3), 177–190.

Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS Survival Manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS (7th ed.). Routledge.

Pratama, H. F. A., & Arief, S. (2019). Pengaruh pemanfaatan e-learning, lingkungan teman sebaya, dan motivasi belajar terhadap prestasi belajar. J-PIPS (Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial), 6(1), 1–12.

Quezada, R. L., Talbot, C., & Quezada-Parker, K. B. (2020). From bricks and mortar to remote teaching: A teacher education program‘s response to COVID-19. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 472–483.

Rafsanjani, M. A. (2014). The influence of parental involvement perceptions on students’ economic learning outcomes. Jurnal Pendidikan Akuntansi (JPA), 2(1), 1–9.

Roper, A. R. (2007). How students develop online learning skills. EDUCAUSE Review, 62–65.

Scull, J., Phillips, M., Sharma, U., & Garnier, K. (2020). Innovations in teacher education at the time of COVID19: An Australian perspective. Journal of Education for Teaching, 1–10.

Shee, D. Y., & Wang, Y.-S. (2008, 2008/04/01/). Multi-criteria evaluation of the web-based e-learning system: A methodology based on learner satisfaction and its applications. Computers & Education, 50(3), 894–905.

Shi, J., Chen, Z., & Tian, M. (2011). Internet self-efficacy, the need for cognition, and sensation seeking as predictors of problematic use of the internet. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw, 14(4), 231–234.

Smith, P. J. (2005). Learning preferences and readiness for online learning. Educational Psychology, 25(1), 3–12.

Tagoe, M. (2012). Students’ perceptions on incorporating elearning into teaching and learning at the University of Ghana. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 8(1), 91–103.

Tsai, M.-J., & Tsai, C.-C. (2003, 2003/01/01). Information searching strategies in web-based science learning: the role of internet self-efficacy. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 40(1), 43–50.

Unicef. (2020). Plans for back to school during Covid-19.

Verma, G., Campbell, T., Melville, W., & Park, B.-Y. (2020). Science teacher education in the times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 31(5), 483–490.

Warner, D., Christie, G., & Choy, S. (1998). Readiness of VET clients for flexible delivery including online learning. Australian National Training Authority.

Wei, H.-C., & Chou, C. (2020). Online learning performance and satisfaction: Do perceptions and readiness matter? Distance Education, 41(1), 48–69.

Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the role of e-learning readiness on student satisfaction and motivation in flipped classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 251–260.

Zimmerman, W. A., & Kulikowich, J. M. (2016, 2016/07/02). Online learning self-efficacy in students with and without online learning experience. American Journal of Distance Education, 30(3), 180–191.